The wave-particle duality paradox of quantum mechanics is resolved here.   


45 minute video of lecture/demonstration,

15 minute video of the experiment in detail.

Important note to anyone attempting to reproduce this work.  Please contact me first.  It was recently discovered that there are anomalies in commercial check source preparations.  Contrary to my writings and videos, the most reliable source is Cobalt-57.  The detectors should be NaI(Tl) scintillators in tandem geometry.  A thin detector can be accomplished with a small well-tube which may be difficult to find.  However, a 4 mm thick end window NaI slab can be manufactured by Rexon.


Published in Progress In Physics, a peer reviewed journal:

New Experiments Call for a Continuous Absorption Alternative to Quantum Mechanics–The Unquantum Effect.


 Successful lecture at SPIE in San Diego, August 11, 2015.  Venue theme is  ”What are Photons?”  

Eric had 20 minutes to describe his work to a targeted audience of physicists

Lecture Slides


Essay in Foundational Questions Institute FQXI: 

A Challenge to Quantized Absorption by Experiment and Theory


Future book chapters, free to view: If the fonts do not reproduce, please use Adobe Reader.

The Unquantum Effect

Resolving the Wave-Particle Paradox

Table of Contents


Inside Front Cover the condensed idea    

Title Page

Part I black

Overview and Acknowledgments.

Experiment Reveals An Understandable World (2003).

Exposure of Physics Misconceptions and Flawed Beam-Split Tests of Past.Excerpts from selected articles of pivotal influence in physics.

An Understanding of the Particle-like Property of Light and Charge (2001). More difficult theory paper.

Part II color

A Serious Challenge to Quantization. How the unquantum effectwas discovered, elimination of artifact. Repeats some theory from Part I (2003).

Part III black

Photon Violation Spectroscopy.  Five physics discoveries, and restated material from Parts I and II (2005).

Unquantum Measurement of Annihilation Radiation. See cover photo (2007).

Part IVcolor

Photo Essay for Photon Violation Spectroscopy.

Proposed Unquantum spectrometer products.

Part V color

Particle Violation Spectroscopy. New work on splitting the alpha-ray, and the discovery of proto-helium(2007).

Planck’s A New Radiation Hypothesis, 1911, translated.

Industrial Application Note.

Part VI color

Photo Essay for Particle Violation Spectroscopy.

Photo Essay, Other Creations. Inventions from the author’s past.

Back Cover



There is a famous test of the validity of the photon concept that has been performed in the past. This test closely resembles a simplified definition of the photon as described by Einstein. The definition states that a singly-emitted photon’s worth of energy, an hv, must all go one way or another at a beam splitter (h = Planck’s constant, v = frequency, v is Greek letter nu). Amazingly, I am the only one to perform this test with gamma-rays. These tests with gamma-rays show that a single emitted “light quanta” can cause coincident detection events beyond a beam splitter at rates that far exceed accidental chance. I show how to defy this defining property of the photon. To defy this principle of the photon is to defy a very strong prediction of quantum mechanics. There are many who have challenged quantum mechanics. My experiments and theory lead to the most serious challenge to quantum mechanics. There is no easy way to convey my message without invoking immediate skepticism. That is why I did the experiment so many different ways, and why my writings describe this test in far greater detail than any similar experiment you will ever find. My finding of coincident detections beyond a beam splitter means that similar tests, performed by others with visible light, are just measuring noise. My test does not split a gamma “photon” into two half-size detection pulses; it detects two full-size pulses in coincidence. This does not violate energy conservation; it violates the principle of the photon. The obvious explanation is the loading theory, long abandoned and unfairly treated in our textbooks. Light is emitted in a photon’s worth of energy hv, but thereafter the narrow cone of light spreads classically. There are no photons!


Links of interest

Unquantum Physics Facebook page

Web archive on viXra.orgof An Understanding…paper.

Maker Fairepublic demonstration Quantum Mechanics Flaw RevealedMay 2007

San Francisco Chroniclearticle on Maker Faire

Quantum Transitions Forum

Physics Forums archived discussion

An older unquantum website

Article from author’s past.

Past lecturewith the San Francisco Tesla SocietyJune 12, 2011

Unquantum Physicsdiscussion Google groupGroup email:


Theoretical works by others that defy quantum mechanics or support the loading theory*:

Photon Dies Screaming by Bill Beaty

Abolishing the wave-particle duality nonsense by X Borg.

Thermodynamics in Planck’s Law by C Ragazas, see chapter 25.*

Beautiful Universe Theory by V Tamari.*

The myth of the photon by Trevor Marshall and his Crisis in physics blog.


You may email the author directly at:

Thanks for reading. Eric Stanley Reiter


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