The wave-particle duality paradox of quantum mechanics is resolved here.   

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45 minute video of lecture/demonstration,

15 minute video of the experiment in detail.


A successful lecture was delivered at the SPIE optics conference in San Diego, August 11, 2015.  Venue theme was  “What are Photons?” Here is the paper. You must agree to not distribute this file. It is copyrighted by SPIE.  It is for your personal use only.  This is my best writing.

New Experiments Call for a Continuous Absorption Alternative to the Photon Model

Lecture Slides


Published in Progress In Physics, a peer reviewed journal:

New Experiments Call for a Continuous Absorption Alternative to Quantum Mechanics–The Unquantum Effect.


Essay in Foundational Questions Institute FQXI: 

A Challenge to Quantized Absorption by Experiment and Theory


The particle/probability model of quantum mechanics (QM) has been highly successful.  However, our popular literature increasingly reports that the world-view dictated by QM is absurd, spooky, or inherently paradoxical.  Our goal is to make sense of the world, and go on to resolve other difficult problems.  QM has shown strong influence in chemistry, biology, and philosophy.  Therefore it is important to remove those spooks.  But we have been stuck!  By straightforward experiment and analysis you can see how this all-important problem is resolved.

Both light and matter have this wave-particle duality problem.   It is by far the most profound problem in physics, and it has been a problem since the photon concept was introduced in 1905.  You will most often see this problem explained in terms of a double-slit experiment.  That experiment is conventionally explained using particles flying across space; then an interference pattern develops: a paradox.  The resolution of the paradox is to understand how waves in a Threshold Model can explain our particle-like effects.  A closely related experiment is the beam-split coincidence test. The only reason QM has survived despite its spooky world-view is because no one has defied QM in a beam-split coincidence test.  Here you will see how beam-split coincidence tests with light, and with matter, resolve the wave-particle duality problem.  Here, and only here, you will see how QM fails, leading to a fundamental understanding of matter and light, now free of spooks.

The beam-split coincidence test for light closely resembles a simplified definition of the photon, as described by Einstein. The definition states that a singly-emitted photon’s worth of energy, an hf, must all go one way or another at a beam splitter (h = Planck’s constant,  f = frequency)  Amazingly, we are first to perform this fundamental test with gamma-rays. These tests with gamma-rays show that a singly emitted “light quanta” can cause coincident detection events beyond a beam-splitter, at rates that far exceed the accidental chance rate predicted by QM.   Here we are saying light is emitted in a quantized pulse, does not stay quantized, and is absorbed continuously.  You will see how our tests that defy QM imply that similar tests of past that were performed with visible light were not able to see through the photon illusion, and were just measuring noise.  Our test does not split a gamma “photon” into two half-size detection pulses; it detects two full-size pulses in coincidence.  It is two-for-one!  This does not violate energy conservation; it violates the principle of the photon. The obvious explanation is the long abandoned accumulation hypothesis… a Threshold Model.  Our work also explains why the accumulation hypothesis was abandoned.

Light is emitted in a photon’s worth of energy hf, but thereafter the cone of light spreads classically. There are no photons. Light is classical.  We explain our particle-like effects, such as the photoelectric and Compton effects, with newly understood properties of the charge-matter-wave in a Threshold Model.


Book chapters, free to view: If the fonts do not reproduce, please use Adobe Reader.

The Unquantum Effect

Resolving the Wave-Particle Paradox

Table of Contents


Inside Front Cover the condensed idea    

Title Page

Part I black

Overview and Acknowledgments.

Exposure of Physics Misconceptions and Flawed Beam-Split Tests of Past.   Excerpts from selected articles of pivotal influence in physics.  New 2015 edit.

An Understanding of the Particle-like Property of Light and Charge.   Detailed theory and history.  New 2016 edit.

Part II color

A Serious Challenge to Quantized Absorption. How the unquantum effect was discovered, elimination of artifact.  Repeats some theory from Part I.  New 2016 edit.

Part III black

Photon Violation Spectroscopy.  Perfected technique and restated material from Parts I and II.   This is an edited patent application, so please forgive the way it reads.  New 2016 edit

Unquantum Measurement of Annihilation Radiation. See cover photo. (2007)

Part IVcolor

Photo Essay for Photon Violation Spectroscopy.

Proposed Unquantum spectrometer products.

Part V color

Particle Violation Spectroscopy.  Beam-splitting the alpha-ray, and the discovery of proto-helium.  This is an edited patent application, so please forgive the way it reads.  New 2016 edit.

Planck’s A New Radiation Hypothesis, 1911, translated.

Industrial Application Note.

Part VI color

Photo Essay for Particle Violation Spectroscopy.

Photo Essay, Other Creations. Inventions from the author’s past.

Back Cover


Links of interest

Unquantum Physics Facebook page

Web archive on of An Understanding…paper.

Maker Fairepublic demonstration Quantum Mechanics Flaw Revealed May 2007

San Francisco Chronicle article on Maker Faire

Quantum Transitions Forum

Physics Forums archived discussion

An older unquantum website

Article from author’s past.

Past lecturewith the San Francisco Tesla SocietyJune 12, 2011

Unquantum Physics discussion Google group Group email:


Theoretical works by others that defy quantum mechanics or support the loading theory*:

Photon Dies Screaming by Bill Beaty

Abolishing the wave-particle duality nonsense by X Borg.

Thermodynamics in Planck’s Law by C Ragazas, see chapter 25.*

Beautiful Universe Theory by V Tamari.*

The myth of the photon by Trevor Marshall and his Crisis in physics blog.


You may email the author directly at:

Thanks for reading.  Eric Stanley Reiter


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